The Piaffe is a diagonalized, elevated, rounded, suspended and majestic trot, in which the horse jumps from one diagonal to the other. (It is pronounced “Pe-aff” in English, but “Pe-affay” in French.)
The hallmarks of a quality Piaffe are balance, regularity, well-flexed joints, horse very relaxed, and rider very discreet with his aids.
If the Piaffe is executed in perfect lightness, it is the most advanced form of equestrian balance,  and any other Dressage exercise can be obtained instantly.

Some very balanced and diagonalized horses who have superior impulsion can Piaffe naturally with an experimented and very tactful rider.

Why piaffe ?

Piaffe is the outcome of a long process of a systematically led Dressage training program. Like any of the “high-school airs” (Airs de Haute-Ecole), it requires a lot of impulsion… Piaffe is born from this truly superior impulsion.
But although the Piaffe is an outcome, it still is an extraordinary way to collect, round the horse and obtain submission. A horse is truly dominated when he not only accepts the Piaffe, but also gets into it with energy, suppleness and relaxation.

The impulsion and lightness required for Piaffe will make the horse beautiful and majestic, and also all the previously learned exercises will become more brilliant. The Piaffe limbers up, develops and strengthens the hindquarters and helps all the gaits. When asked after a Piaffe, the canter or the extended trot will have a particular quality to it.

In the ideal piaffe:

-- The horse is strongly engaged and works on a short base,
- The front leg lifts until the forearm reaches horizontal, 
- The diagonal hind leg lifts until its hoof reaches the height of the fetlock joint of the other foot,
- The “diagonalization”  and symmetry of the limbs is perfect,
- The posture is constant. It allows strictly even cadence, added to regularity and energy,
- The joints are flexed and the haunches are lowered distinctively,
- The movement is high, slow and energetic while staying smooth,
- The forehand is taller. The bent neck stays the highest point,
- The horse’s mouth is smooth and relaxed, and the lower jaw is yielding,
- The horse is relaxed and serene,
- The rider is in balance, taller, relaxed and absolutely discreet with his aids. He smoothly follows the movement of the horse.

Balance - Harmony - Lightness


The horse must be able to instantly go to a trot, Passage or canter… at the slightest cue.

Perfect Piaffe requires well balance, generous, strong and limber horses who are able to collect greatly and to flex their joints strongly. All horses are not able to execute this brilliant Piaffe, but almost all horses can make it to a correct or simply modest Piaffe. They will gain energy, beauty, submission from it and their training will be a lot easier.

The Aids

A good Piaffe cannot be obtained with constraints.
It’s artistic value and its beauty depends on the lightness and the relaxation of the horse and how discreetly the rider uses his aids.

Like anything else when riding, the essential lies in the preparation. The most important is to put the horse in the posture that allows him to Piaffe. Put the horse in the right position, ask and let it happen.
When the horse knows the Piaffe, the principal aid is preparation.

Preparation of the piaffe

At the walk, first look for:

- A collected, very straight and vibrant horse working on a short base with impulsion,
- A perfectly balanced horse who is spreading his weight equally between front and hind end,
- Very active and flexed hind legs and haunches, to allow the haunches to lower and the forehand to elevate,
- A steady neck flexed at the poll,
- Freely moving shoulders,
- Supported front legs that gain in height what they loose in length,
- Feet that land softly on the ground,
- A soft contact and a smooth mouth.

In short, a general roundness, a superior energy, an absence of resistance and a greatly obedient horse define this preparation of the Piaffe.
It also requires a well-balanced rider who is sitting tall and relaxed, with the legs hanging down smoothly.

The aids of the piaffe

Lightness of aids is capital.
Proceed the following way:

- Make yourself taller in the chest, it is your Master Key to Piaffe,
- Position your shoulder slightly behind the vertical, push your stomach out and up, head high,
- Let your lower back go with the movement of the horse, follow and amplify it while your back stays relaxed,
- Move your two legs back slightly,
- Use diagonal aids,
- Your right leg touches the horse softly (slightly behind) at the moment the right hind leg lifts off the ground.
- Your left leg is relaxed and then touches the horse when the left hind leg and right front leg lift off the ground
- Your left hand softly supports the left front leg at the moment it lifts off. The right hand is neutral.

The essential is the coordination of the aids, their dosage and timing.
The whip or tongue clicking when judiciously used can be helpful, especially when teaching the Piaffe to the horse.
And when the horse is well established in his Piaffe, when he Piaffes by himself, the rider smoothly follows the movement with his hand and legs totally lowered.

Teaching the piaffe

Is it better to start with the Piaffe or the Passage?

The horse’s temperament determines what method to use.
If the horse is very energetic, if he can diagonalize and collect naturally, it is better to start with Passage. When the Passage is confirmed, sustained and cadenced, the strides are then gradually shortened to reach Piaffe. With a calmer horse who has a lesser natural ability to diagonalize, it is smarter to start by teaching the Piaffe.

Then, when the Piaffe is confirmed, well cadenced and regular, you can lead him into Passage by gradually pushing him forward.

But every horse is a particular case. It is sometimes preferable to first develop the movement for which the horse has the most natural ability, just to make the other one easier.
The rider’s experience only can determine the right choice.

What the horse already needs to know

Before teaching the Piaffe, the horse must be able to carry himself, develop a great impulsion, be flexible and stay relaxed in any circumstance.

Shoulders-in and half passes are mastered and executed with ease. They have made the horse more flexible and refined his muscle mass.

The horse is mobile, quick to mobilize and to collect, he must be able to halt and trot without loosing collection and to back up with ease and promptly trot forward.
If your horse already knows the “school walk” and the “school trot” (see in Themes, “The walk” and “The Trot”)… the hardest part is done.

Your horse is ready to give his first Piaffe.

You can use different ways.

Teach to Piaffe starting from the trot

The Piaffe is a trot on the spot.
Therefore you will try to lead your horse to trot on the spot: Piaffe.
First, get some really nice sharp, well framed and well-engaged halts, followed by collected trot departs. Then, reduce the amount of strides between halts and shorten the duration of the halt very progressively and tactfully.

Give particular attention to the horse’s straightness and relaxation. Also watch closely how quick the horse is to comply.

When the horse does all that with ease, reduce the amount of trot strides again, until the horse starts to Piaffe, while still going forward slightly.
Then, tactfully proceed the same way from a rein back, with no jolting and no roughness.

At the same time, also work with great precision on shortening the trot stride.
When the horse is at ease in a slow and relaxed cadence, (close to the “School Trot”) slow down for several strides by using your chest to make yourself taller and by sitting deeper.
If you do not loose impulsion your horse will shorten his stride and it will gain in height.
Be satisfied with just 2 or 3 strides almost on the spot, and then let your horse go forward again, smoothly and without changing his balance.
This exercise must never be asked for with strength, but only by playing with the balance of the horse.

Little by little, you will get several strides of Piaffe while still going forward a bit.
Now it’s time to alternate all the different ways to ask for Piaffe: from the trot depart started at the halt and from shortening the stride at the trot.

Be satisfied with few regular strides, reward profusely, get off the horse and bring back to the barn.

Teaching to Piaffe by mobilizing the walk on the spot

Everything lies in the preparation of the horse.
Obtain a very round, smooth but energetic walk that already contains Piaffe, a walk with a lot of attention and concentration from the horse, a “school walk”, meaning the horse is starting to diagonalize.
Be one with your horse, light, tall in the saddle and relaxed.
Then, simply by asking the horse to engage himself on the bit, he will start to mobilize his limbs and do a trace of Piaffe. Do not push the horse. Piaffe while slightly going forward at each stride and just go along with it… let the horse do.
Let go of the reins, reward and let the horse walk on loose reins, allowing him to stretch his neck.
Increase you demand very progressively.

Later on, you can ask for someone to help the action of the hind legs with a dressage whip or a long whip.
But this is a very delicate operation requiring great observation skills. The helper must be very coordinated and experienced. In no way should the horse be hit hard. He must be motivated to go with the whistling of the long whip, light touches or brushings of the dressage whip behind the hind legs, on his buttocks, haunches or on his croup.

It would also help the rider to use the whip himself, following the same rules as above, with tactfulness, skill and good judgement.

Mobilizing the walk on the spot demands very vibrant, well-balanced and relaxed horses… and riders with great finesse.

But what a pleasure…!

Teaching to Piaffe on foot, by working toward diagonalizing

Only a very experimented, skillful and meticulous trainer must take on this delicate task, with a horse who has been previously worked on foot and calmly executes shoulder-ins and half-passes. Working on foot may be very tricky with some horses.

The horse must trust the trainer and accept to be touched with the whip anywhere on his body. Then you have to find the spot on the hind end that triggers the right response from the horse.
I.e.: On the left rein, the reins and left curb rein are held with the left hand, and the right curb rein is passing over the withers and held in the right hand with the whip.

Obtain easy halts, along the rail while the horse is engaged, his neck flexed and his jaw relaxed.

Ask for one or two backing up steps, placing yourself facing the horse’s shoulder, your legs apart with your upper body slightly turned toward the horse’s croup. Obtain steps back by just vibrating the reins in the left hand towards the back end of the horse. Reward, start over and go very progress very slowly.

Next, ask for one or two steps back and while the horse remains very flexed, carry your upper body forward and give in with your left hand and the right curb rein in your right hand, while carefully touching the horse on the inside buttock to make him go forward.

When this become easier, go forward two or three steps, backward two or three steps… several times in a row. The position of your upper body, alternatively leaning forward and backward, is very important.

Then, ask for the beginning of a step back, and right away for the beginning of a step forward… the horse becomes mobile… he gives his first strides of Piaffe, going slightly forward.

Slowly increase your demand until you obtain several strides of calm and regular Piaffe, without asking to lift the knees higher.

Always be very smooth, use light and quick touches with the whip on the buttock, the thigh or the top of the croup, depending on the reactions of the horse. Have a smooth hand that lets the Piaffe happen, with semi-taut reins.

The horse must always feel a kind of freedom to go forward, like a mental door always staying open for him.

This work on foot may precede, complete and confirm the Piaffe under saddle.

Experience and skill of the rider, and aptitude and response of the horse will determine the best approach to teach Piaffe, whether it is taught from the trot, the walk, on foot, or even by shortening the Passage stride.These different methods to teach Piaffe are not exclusive. They complete and reinforce each other most of the time and they all participate to the education of the horse.

How to improve the piaffe?

The teaching period is over. Your horse is now giving several steps of Piaffe.

If the horse executes the Piaffe with certain ease from the walk and does not resist it, his movement still lacks amplitude, height, bounce and energy. Generally, the beginner’s Piaffe is shy or too fast, the amount of flexing of the joints is still insufficient and the positioning of the head is sometimes low.
Asking for Piaffe very often causes the horse to be excited and the stillness and quietness of the halts become uncertain.

Your objective is now to bring your horse’s Piaffe to its best level, the one described in the presentation of this chapter, without ever exceeding the horse’s capabilities.

You will have to be very patient. Improving and developing Piaffe takes time, months and sometimes years….

Wanting to obtain a very elevated, spectacular Piaffe fast is a common mistake that often jeopardizes the Piaffe, sometimes irreversibly.

A calm and regular Piaffe

The first qualities of a good Piaffe are relaxation, regularity and cadence of the movement, not the height the horse’s knees reach.

The amount of energy the Piaffe requires causes nervousness in the horse. By calming your horse and moderating your demands, you will allow him to become a calm and mentally relaxed partner.

From there on, you can develop the regularity of the movement.
When the Piaffe becomes more regular, progressively ask for more steps, while always being careful to stop the horse before he stops on his own.
To regularize the Piaffe is to feel at anytime what dose of calm or nerve impulse your horse needs.

You may calm your horse by keeping your legs neutral, by loosening your chest a bit more, by authorizing the horse’s neck to lower very slightly, by talking to him….

You may request more nerve impulse by slightly amplify the movement of your legs (- not by hardening them), by making your chest taller, by pushing with your belt (waist) stomach out and up (- not by wriggling), even by clicking your tongue or using the whip…. As soon as the horse becomes active, play with calmness again.

And when the horse executes his Piaffe well, when he Piaffes on his own, the rider follows the movement smoothly, with the legs and hand completely lowered.

La première qualité d'un piaffer est la relaxation, la régularité, la cadence du geste et non la hauteur de celui-ci.

L'énergie demandée dans le piaffer entraîne une montée du nervosisme du cheval. C'est en calmant votre cheval, en modérant vos exigences que vous obtiendrez un partenaire calme au psychisme relaxé.

A straight piaffe

The horse may have a tendency to escape on one side or the other with his croup, because he has difficulties with one hip, he refuses to engage, he wants to escape the exercise or he is reacting to a too strong and badly coordinated aid.
Pay great attention to your aids, keep your whip on the difficult side. Ask for Piaffe along a wall, putting the escaping hip against that wall.

To straighten your horse, swing your hands smoothly from one side of the withers to the other, keeping your hands parallel. The hands move to the right when the right front leg is in the air and to the left when the left front leg comes up.
Be careful! This is a Very slight and regular swinging, coordinated with the diagonals.

DO NOT make your horse’s shoulders swing. If you execute this swinging well, you will improve your horse’s cadence and set him straight. Working on long reins may also be a great help to straighten a crooked Piaffe.

Piaffe anywhere in the arena

So far, you always asked for Piaffe along a wall (fence), on the same rein, at the best spot in the arena, the one where you felt your horse was more inclined to Piaffe.
Progressively ask for Piaffe on both reins, anyplace along the wall.

Then, if the horse stays calm and straight, start to Piaffe at an angle compared to the rail, shoulders on a diagonal and hind legs against the wall. Little by little, bring the horse’s shoulder more into the arena while monitoring the haunches so they do not move out of alignment, until the horse is perpendicular to the wall.
Reward, walk on long reins.

Start over, moving forward slowly toward the center of the arena. Proceed likewise at several other spots in the arena. This way, the horse will start moving away from the rail without worrying.

You may now start your Piaffe in the middle of the arena, at X or anywhere else, always monitoring the straightness of the horse very closely, not letting his haunches slide out on one side or the other.

Piaffe in the right posture

To manage a good Piaffe, above all, you need to put your horse in the right posture and the right balance.

The art of the trainer is to feel what posture to put the horse in and how much energy he needs.

You cannot coerce the horse; he must find the best posture himself. The right posture is the one that makes the Piaffe possible and easier.

One horse might not be able to lower his haunches so much because his hocks are week, another one will have to Piaffe with his head set lower because his croup is not strong enough, and another one might need to be slightly bent to the right…


With experience and tactfulness, you will find it…
Everything is a matter of small touches. The foundation principle is to keep the horse light. As soon as the aids harden, the posture gets lost. Think about this!

A more collected Piaffe

The quality of the Piaffe depends on the engagement of the hindquarters. This engagement requires a superior impulsion. 
You can develop this engagement and impulsion with daily exercise: shoulder-ins, half-passes (walk trot and canter), Pirouettes, backing up…. Day after day, almost unnoticeably, progress will be made.

Give special attention to the preparation of the Piaffe to create extra impulsion. Once the Piaffe is started, it is hard to add more energy to it.
Forcing the horse with stronger aids will only bring is more stiffness. Rather look for the best possible posture first, then smoothly amplify the movement working with your belt (waist).
At this stage, it could be precious help to use an assistant behind or next to the hindquarters (see “Teaching to Piaffe by mobilizing the walk on the spot”.)

Work on backing up, another diagonal gait like Piaffe. Backing up particularly engages the hindquarters.

Start playing with the balance. Ask a couple of Piaffe steps while backing up half a foot, then some strides on the spot, than forward… then backwards… on the spot again… your horse is engaging his hindquarter under his mass and the hind legs become more animated when staying on the spot or going forward.

There is an optimal amount of collection and engagement for every horse. If you go beyond it, the hindquarters will reach too far under the horse’s mass and he will freeze up and stiffen.
Feel the strength of your horse’s haunches and hocks to know how deep you can sit him.

A more brilliant piaffe

The following exercises are designed to give the horse the mental and physical means necessary to the blossoming of the Piaffe.
All horse to not have the same capabilities for Piaffe.

With his horsemanship, his tactfulness and his experience, the rider allows the horse to show off all the grace, energy and beauty the Piaffe can harbor.

 To be brilliant, a horse must first be put in the posture that is right for him. Different horses will require different head/neck angles. Some horses will need more energy or require more relaxation. Other horses might need to quicken or slow down their Piaffe, or to elevate or lower their forehand.

But the essential to obtain a brilliant Piaffe is to have a horse that is mentally relaxed, physically dynamic and perfectly balanced in his collection.
And this result can only be achieved by absolute lightness of the rider’s actions.

Piaffe Pirouette

When the horse does the Piaffe calmly, nice and straight and when he reacts with his haunches at the slightest cue whether along the rail or in the middle of the arena, you can start asking for a Piaffe Pirouette.

Start along the rail by progressively taking the shoulders away from it (see above, “Piaffe anywhere in the arena”). That is already a quarter of a Pirouette.

Then, in the middle of the arena, the horse is asked to move his shoulders by subtle shifts in the balance. Control and ask for very little lateral movement without altering the cadence.

Another form of Pirouette: the horse rotates around his central axis, represented by the rider’s upper body.
This rotation can be obtained with very little, light and subtle touches: small movements of the seat, unnoticeable rotation of the shoulders or discreet movement of the hands or legs.

Go slow. Do a quarter or a half Pirouette, continue the Piaffe on the spot, then continue the Pirouette or even go the other way smoothly.
The horse must stay calm and regular in his cadence.

Transitions Piaffe – Passage

It is a common mistake, when beginning to teach Piaffe, to want to go forward into a good trot or into Passage.
When the horse is stable in his Piaffe, start with smooth transitions from Piaffe to School Trot.

To mage a good Piaffe – Passage – Piaffe transition, the horse must be at ease in both Piaffe and Passage. But a horse very rarely has the same level of skill in Piaffe and Passage. So those transitions can create a lot of difficulties.

Therefore, start by working on the exercise that is hardest for your horse (Piaffe or Passage).

Then, you can ask for transitions when the Passage is nice and short, light while the horse is seated, and when the Piaffe is sustained and bit slower.

The secret of a good transition is to preserve cadence.
Avoid making any noticeable physical movement, or you will destroy cadence.

The action of your chest determines your Piaffe.Your back goes with the motion of the horse, upwards and slightly backwards.
To come out of the Piaffe into a passage, subtly relax your back to allow more forward movement. Your back still goes upward, but it lets the forward motion go through. At the same time, your legs move back further to get to Passage, and your hands subtly give in for a while, and hold again when Passage is established.

Same idea to go from Passage to Piaffe.

Pirouettes and transitions piaffe-Passage-Piaffe have great artistic value when executed in roundness, lightness and harmony.

My Advice

Whatever the methods or techniques used, never forget that the essential is to feel and adapt to each horse, and to show great sensitivity.
Never force the horse to Piaffe, you will only obtain a fake Piaffe with absolutely no artistic value.
You must be convinced that Piaffe must not the result of some trick stimuli or constraint, but the outcome of extreme collection and extra impulsion.
At the Piaffe, calm the nervous horse, reassure the worried horse, and wake up the slouchy horse!
Prod, pull, hit… and you will never understand what Piaffe is!

If the horse’s haunches are not strong enough, allow him to Piaffe with the neck lower.
To round and collect your horse, work on backing up, make it better.
Before Piaffe, increase the vibration of your horse.
Create a lot of impulsion before the Piaffe and just use it during the Piaffe without letting it fade.

At the beginning when teaching Piaffe, keep the horse’s head a bit lower, to help him to stay relaxed.
Always let your horse go forward a bit during the teaching period.
As soon as you get the first steps of Piaffe, stop the horse after a couple of steps before he stops on his own or becomes agitated.
Also at the beginning, do not try to transition into a energetic trot after Piaffe. It is better to just let go of the reins and walk on loose reins.

Never pressure your horse, let him always think that he could go forward anytime.
Do not force the horse into Piaffe, do not rush him or constraint him, but request from him, appeal to him and help him.
To slow down the Piaffe, do almost nothing with your hand and use mostly your chest.

When using a whip, be precise, quick and light. Do not harden your hands and do not stiffen your body. Stay calm and relaxed.

Use the whip with no animosity.
Associate the action of the whip with your chest, and the action of your hands with your legs.

If your horse is lacking lightness, ask yourself if you are not to heavy with your hands.

Do not use a non-qualified assistant, one that would not be able to feel and observe correctly, and who would use the whip without consideration.
Chose someone skilled, quick and calm who knows what a calm and collected horse looks like, someone capable of training a horse to Piaffe himself.
Use your legs in a sort of swinging motion, touch each side of the horse alternatively.
Never have hard, stiff and demanding legs. Make your legs “friendly”, legs that suggest, request and reassure.

To be efficient with your legs, you must touch lightly at the precise moment and the right place. More at the Piaffe than for anything else, you must practice lowering the hands and the legs.

Use the spur rather than the leg, but very lightly, with small, delicate touches.
If your horse’s headset is incorrect, think about the correctness of your legs. Are they too hard, stuck against the horse, or do they give the horse give enough time to react?

Be patient, progressive and do not cut corners. Let the Piaffe blossom.
Do not forget that bringing a horse to Piaffe takes a long time, sometimes a very long time and a lot of work.

When the horse gives you a calm Piaffe with some cadence and roundness, know when to stop asking for more, so that you do not destroy your horse’s piaffe.
Do not ask your horse to do more than what he can do, you could jeopardize his entire training.

Remember Mr. Nuno Oliveira little joke: “Don’t try to amaze your audience, amaze your horse”.
Do not overdo Piaffe, keep your horse mentally fresh.

Frequently encountered problems 


My horse is agitated at a halt.

My horse and I started to Piaffe recently, but he started lifting his diagonals at every halt. What can I do?

Almost all horses react this way at the beginning. To Piaffe excites them and over stimulates their nervous system. Your horse remembers the beginning of teaching passage: Piaffe from a walk or from a halt. The horse is eager, it is a “good mistake” if it is corrected right away. But if you let it become a habit, it becomes an error.
Work on transitions trot – halt, pat your horse, let go of the reins and walk around.
Start over. Reassure the horse.
Be very calm, immobile on your horse and reassuring.
This problem should go away rapidly if caught at the beginning.

Too much weight on the hind legs.
I started teaching my horse Piaffe and my horse has a hard time taking the extra load on the hindquarters. Why and what can I do?

You are probably asking for a too much “seated” posture, for too much collection, especially at the beginning of teaching Piaffe.

Do not hesitate to slightly lean forward, make your seat lighter to allow your horse to form a better movement with his hind legs.
At the same time, let the horse go forward a foot or so at every stride and reduce this distance very slowly.
 Then, depending on how fast your horse progresses, straighten your upper body again.

My horse’s front legs come too far under his body

This is difficult to correct. The balance is not right, the horse has difficulties to go forward after Piaffe.
Work on your trot, collect more and try to get closer to a “school trot”. Practice on a lot of collected halts followed by nice and sharp trot departs.
After these exercises the horse will halt in a better frame, ready to go into the trot or Piaffe.
The haunches will be better flexed, the forehand will move up, the movement of the forelegs will be freed and the forelegs will gradually straighten up and become vertical under the horse’s body.

The movement of the front legs is sometimes insufficient and sometimes exaggerated.

You must experience with the amount of effort the haunches make and the balance of the horse. If the forelegs are not active enough, slightly raise your hands by straightening your chest up and back, to get your horse more vibrant. Your horse will lower his haunches, take weight off the forehand and allow the forelegs to move more freely.
If the problem is opposite -if the forelegs are lifted too high- lower your hands to rebalance your horse between front and back end.
In both cases, you must play with the horse’s balance.

Passage – Piaffe

I am currently training a purebred Spanish horse, this since 2 years. Lately, I am stuck in my training because of a lack of impulsion in Passage and at the beginning of Piaffe. The inside hind leg has a hard time to engage under the body of the horse and therefore the left diagonal is less active than the right diagonal. Shoulder-ins have improved engagement but not so much propulsion.

Lack of impulsion in Passage

Work on making the horse more vibrant in a trot. Collect, slow down while keeping the horse active, lengthen the stride for a short time without loosing collection or letting the head stretch, and start over. Before Passage, work on half-pass and counter half-pass (zigzag). Also work and transition trot – halt – trot without loosing collection. Obtain very sharp trot departs and very well engaged halts, then trot departs from a rein-back and then Passage.
Obtain the School Trot.
Transition trot – Passage – trot on short distances.

Inside hind leg is less active during Piaffe

Move the horse’s croup slightly away from the rail, and use the whip on the right haunch or thigh at the moment the leg lands.
Seek what posture (straight, slightly bent to the right or left, height of neck or degree of headset) allows the horse to free and activate his right hind.
Very little is often enough. Try to feel it.


Posture-position / Walk / Trot / Canter / Shoulder-in / Half-pass /Flying change of lead/ Tempi changes / The canter Pirouette / Piaffe

A Word
This page in french

© Chiris 2002